Trong một số trường hợp các phó từ không đứng ở vị trí bình thường của nó mà đảo lên đứng ở đầu câu nhằm nhấn mạnh vào hành động của chủ ngữ. Người ta gọi đó là câu đảo ngữ. Trong trường hợp đó ngữ pháp sẽ thay đổi, đằng sau phó từ đứng đầu câu là trợ động từ rồi mới đến chủ ngữ và động từ chính:
1.At no time / never + auxiliary verb (Trợ động từ) + S + V : Không bao giờ
The result of the match was never in doubt
=> At no time/never was the result of the match in doubt
2.On no account + aux + S + V : Không vì bất cứ lí do nào
U Should never be late for the exam
=> On no account should U be late for the Exam.
3. In/Under no circumstances + aux + S V : Dù trong bất kì tình huống/hoàn cảnh nào cũng không = In no way
I'll never betray my own country
=> In/Under no circumstances will I betray my own country
4.Only by V-ing + aux + S + V :Chỉ bằng cách làm gì
We must take a taxi or will be late
=> Only by taking a taxi will we get there on time.
5. Only After +V-ing/ N/ clause + aux + S V : Chỉ sau khi làm gì
You Will be able to get a job only after U have Graduated
=> Only after Your Graduation will U be able to get a Job
6.Only When + S V, Vaux + S V : Chỉ khi làm gì
I didn't know she had been well-known until her friends told me.
=> Only when her friends told me did I know she had been well-known.
7.Only With + N + aux+ S V : Chỉ với cái gì
He couldn't have bought the car if the bank hadn't lent him the money.
=> Only with the bank's loan could he buy the car.
8.Not until + clause , aux + S V : Cho đến khi
They couldn't go on working until the rain stopped
=>Not until the rain stopped could they go on working
9. Not until + N + aux+ S V : Mãi đến khi
Man didn't fly into space until the early 1960s
=> Not until the early 1960s đi man fly into space.
10.Seldom/Hardly/Scarcely/Barely + aux + S+ V : hiếm khi mà
She seldom misses a lecture
=> Seldom does she miss a lecture
11. Seldom/Hardly/Scarcely/Barely + had + S + past participle + when + S + did : Chỉ vừa mới ... thì
The lecture started to write the right plan. He hardly returned home
= > Hardly had the lecture returned home when he started to write the right plan.
12.So + adv + aux + S + V + that S+ V : Đến nỗi mà
Almost of everyone in the party starred at a beautiful girl.
=> So beautiful does a girl that almost of everyone in the party starred at.
13. So + adj + be + S + that + clause
This book is so interesting that I have read it twice
=> So interesting is this book that I have read it twice
14. Adv of Place + V + S : Đảo ngữ nhấn mạnh địa điểm
The books lay on the table
=> On the table lay the books
Under the tree was lying one of the biggest men I had ever seen.
Directly in front of them stood a great castle.
On the grass sat an enormous frog.
15.No sooner had + S + done - than S did : Vừa mới...thì đã...
No sooner had we come home than it rained
16. Hardly had + S + done+ when + S did : (Như câu 15)
Hardly had we come home when it rained
17. Such + be + N + that + clause
Such is the moment that all greats traverse.
18. Not only + aux + S +V + but + S ( also ) + V…
Not only does he study well, but also he sings well.
19. Only in this way + aux + S + V: Chỉ bằng cách này
Only in this way could the problem be solved
20. • By no means + aux + S + V: Hoàn toàn không
By no means does he intend to criticize your idea.
21. Negative ( phủ định ), nor + aux + S + V
He had no money, nor did he know anybody from whom he could borrow.
22. Câu điều kiện
- Loại 1 : Should + S + V, S + will + v
Ex : Should you meet Lan, tell her to phone me
- Loại 2 : Were + S + to V , S + would V
Ex : Were I to meet the author, I would ask her to sign on my book.
- Loại 3 : Had + S + past participle, S + would have + past participle
Ex : Had he understood the problem, he wouldn't have committed those mistakes.
1. Rarely ____ she made mistake since she was a manager.
2. _____ the truth, she wouldn’t have given Mark the money.
A. She had known
B. She has know
C. Had she known
D. Has she known
3. So beautiful _____ that the Queen is envious with her.
A. Snow White is
B. Snow White are
C. is Snow White
D. are Snow White
4. Never _____ in such a strange situation.
A. has I been
B. have I been
C. am I been
D. I have been
5. Seldom _____ dinner together.
A. do Mark and Juliet have
B. does Mark and Juliet have
C. is Mark and Juliet have
D. are Mark and Juliet have
6. Hardly _____ his wife presents on her birthday.
A. did James given
B. does James gave
C. had James given
D. do James give
7. Scarcely _____, the rain became much more heavier.
A. have I come in
B. had I come in
C. I have come in
D. I came in
8. Only then ____ the letter from my son.
A. do I receive
B. did I receive
C. have I received
D. has I received
9. No sooner ____ , when Mary came over.
A. have John gone out
B. had John gone out
C. has John gone out
D. John has gone out
10. So frightened _____ the film that I couldn’t sleep yesterday.
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